First let's get this out of the way, there probably never was a major matriarchal society throughout human history. No one has ever found evidence of such a society beyond the rumours of the Greeks about the Amazons. What was, however, the basic human norm was a system of matrilinear descent. This makes perfect biological sense as it is very hard to not know who your mother was while "who's your daddy?" remains to this day part of the lexicon. And it was from the switch from matrilinear descent to patrilinear descent that the patriarchy came.
Think about it. Patrilinear descent and passing of property is dependent on absolute knowledge of who is a child's father meaning the sex life of the mother must be known and controlled just for patriarchy to exist. It is from this switch that the obscene concept of "illegitimate" children comes from and I say obscene because it is. Placing such a label on an innocent child is about as obscene as it gets. The evidence of history is clear if largely and willfully ignored. Matrilinear descent was the norm throughout most of human history and such cultures are largely peaceful by nature and egalitarian in regard to the sexes. In a world that has been dominated by patriarchial thinking since roughly 1500 BCE, egalitarian can appear down right matriarchal.
Most of ancient history as still taught to this day in grade schools and undergrad universities is pure garbage and actual historians are well aware of this but allow it to be perpetuated. We still teach that the Tigris and the Euphrates fertile crescent is the "cradle of civilization" when the earliest known civilization has been known to predate that by almost six thousand years! Known since the early 1960s. It was in central Anatolia or modern Turkey first uncovered by James Mellaart at Catal Huyuk where exploration continues to this day and dozens of contemporary cities in that area have also now been found. It was a Mother Goddess culture that later spread to Egypt, the Indus valley and the large islands of the eastern Mediterranean. All of those cultures were also matrilinear in nature. They were also all, at least originally, Mother Goddess civilizations. In a history that spans around five thousand years to the time of the Mesopotamian cities, this civilization never built walled cities or is there any evidence of ANY war but rather extensive trade networks.
Circa 1900 Sir Arthur Evans excavated the "Palace of Knossos" on Crete and shocked the world with the announcement that the Minoan civilization was a Goddess culture. Today we know that the centre of the Minoan civilization was actually on Thera, known today as Santorini which was a volcano that erupted circa 1500 BCE (believe it or not the exact date is still debated) in the most violent eruption in all of recorded history. The Minoans dominated the entire eastern Mediterranean with trade and established trading settlements all over the entire eastern coastal regions including major ones on the Nile delta. The explosion of Thera is almost certainly the origin of the stories of Atlantis especially when you consider the habour of Thera was the caldera of the volcano and naturally had the concentric circles of water and land that Plato wrote about. Further evidence is in that the civilization established by the Minoans was lightyears ahead of anything else on the planet with hot and cold indoor plumbing and flush toilets, earthquake proof construction methods that were engineered to naturally cool and heat themselves and furniture and art work that would look at home in any modern home today. As a Goddess culture, the descent was matrilinear and there was absolute equality of the sexes.
Until very very recently historians have ignored the influence of the Minoan culture on the western world. Our world today would be vastly different had Thera stayed quiet with a high degree of probability that no patriarchy would have found a foothold and the Abrahamic religions would be minor footnotes. Think of the intellectual dishonesty involved in ignoring the influence of the single most important event in human history for when Thera did explode it changed weather as far away as China and Japan, the tsunami that resulted scoured the entire eastern Mediterranean coastlines of all settlements save a few in the lee of major islands. What was left of the Minoan culture was on the high ground of Crete and that was immediately invaded by the Mycenaean Greeks and the entire Greek civilization thought today the origin of modern civilization was built on the bones of the Minoans with patriarchy overlaid. What was left of the Minoan culture survived in Phrygia (Turkey) having come full circle back to where the first Goddess culture civilization began. The Phrygians retained matrilinear descent traditions and the Mother Goddess then went from there to Athens and later Rome. During the fifth century CE the christians hunted down and killed "all the daughters and sons of the Mother Goddess" throughout Phrygia after killing all the priestesses of Cybele at their Roman Phrygianum on the Vatican hill in their beds and burning the library of Alexandra and killing the library's last and greatest scholar, Hypatia of Alexandria with a death of a thousand cuts done with seashells by a christian mob. Europe immediately plunged into the Dark Ages as a result. This is christian historical legacy this and the prior killing off of all the gnostic christians giving rise to the brand of christianity, perhaps better called Paulianity has cursed the world to this day.